Reference: CBD Side Effects, Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent
Mateus Machado Bergamaschi Regina Helena Costa Queiroz, José Alexandre S. Crippa and Antonio Waldo Zuardi
CBD Side Effects. Cannabidiol, a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were “cannabinoids”, “cannabidiol” and “side effects”. Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a component of Cannabis sativa and constitutes up to 40% of the extracts of the plant . However, CBD concentrations are highly variable and depend on the growing conditions, the different phenotypes of illicit cannabis, and on the part of the plant analyzed . Evidence suggests that the potency of CBD has decreased in recent years, while THC concentrations have increased, since the use of varieties such as sensimillia (‘skunk’), provided by ilegal cannabis growers, currently dominates the supply of cannabis in many countries . CBD induces markedly different psychological effects compared to the best known marijuana compound, 9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) . Despite presenting low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD can still interact with these receptors at doses equal to or lower than 1 μM. Therefore, there is no certainty about whether this antagonism is non-competitive. CBD can also act as a CB1 receptor inverse agonist at concentrations below those needed to bind to the CB1 orthosteric site.Side Effects of Cannabidiol