Reference: Cannabidiol Wide Spectrum CBD from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with wide spectrum of action.
Antonio Waldo Zuardi
Full spectrum CBD. In the tip of secreting hairs located mainly on female-plant flowers and, in a smaller amount, in the leaves of cannabis plant, there are resin glands that have a considerable amount of chemically related active compounds, called cannabinoids. In some varieties of cannabis the main cannabinoid is the psychoactive component of the plant, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC). Cannabis varieties typically bred for fiber are nearly always relatively low in delta9-THC, cannabidiol (CBD) being the predominant cannabinoid in these plants.1 Although CBD was isolated from marijuana extract in 1940 by Adams et al.,2 for almost 25 years no further work has been reported, except for a few early works about its isolation. Only in 1963 its exact chemical structure was elucidated by Mechoulam and Shvo.3 Over the following few years Mechoulam’s group was responsible for the structure and stereochemistry determination of the main cannabinoids, which opened a new research field on pharmacological activity of cannabis constituents.4,5
The evolution of the number of publications on CBD since 1963, in comparison with publications on cannabis in general, is shown in Figure 1. Only a few pharmacological studies on CBD were reported before the early 1970’s, showing that CBD had no cannabis-like activity.6 The number of publications increased in this decade and reached a first peak around 1975. In this period, a Brazilian research group led by Carlini, gave an important contribution, especially about the interactions of delta9-THC with other cannabinoids, including CBD.7 Then, the number of publications declined and remained stabilized until a few years ago.
The interest in studies about cannabis was renewed in the early 1990’s, by the description and cloning of specific receptors for the cannabinoids in the nervous system and the subsequent isolation of anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid.8 Afterwards, the number of publications about cannabis has been continuously growing, but the reports on CBD remained stable until the early 2000’s. In the last five years there has been an explosive increase in publications on CBD, with the confirmation of a plethora of pharmacological effects, many of them with therapeutic potential. There are some recent and very good reviews on CBD.9-12 As historical aspects have so far not been yet emphasized, the aim of the present review is to describe the development of this research field which transformed our view about CBD from an inactive cannabinoid to a drug with multiple actions.Cannabidiol Wide Spectrum