Reference: Cannabidiol and Diabetes Diabetes Type 1 and Diabetes Type 2 – The Remarkable Impact of CBD Treatments
Diabetes is an autoimmune disease; a problem within the body that causes blood glucose (sugar) levels to rise higher than normal. The American Diabetes Association describes Type 1 diabetes as the body’s inability to produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches, and other food into the energy that is required for daily life. Type 2 diabetes is defined as the body’s inability to use insulin properly, referred to as insulin resistance. At first, the pancreas makes extra insulin to compensate for the initial deficit. Eventually, the onset of insulin deficiency occurs when the pancreas can no longer keep up; no longer able to keep blood glucose at normal levels. Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes); affects 5% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults. Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or non–insulin-dependent diabetes) can develop at any age. It most commonly develops during adulthood although it is rising in children.
Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes—90 to 95 out of 100 people. Specifically, our immune system attacks the cells in the pancreas (Beta Cells in the Islets of Langerhans), which produce insulin. By definition, islets are actually clusters of cells; each “islet” containing 3,000 to 4,000 cells. Scientists estimate there are 1 million islets in a healthy, adult pancreas accounting for 1 to 2% of the entire organ. Within each islet there are several types of cells working together to regulate blood sugar. When these beta cells are destroyed, the sugar we consume is no longer delivered to the cells in our body but instead over burdens the blood plasma. As a result, the high blood sugar compromises proteins throughout the body (a process referred to as glycation,) which is magnified further by oxidative stress (inflammation that damages arteries throughout the body.) These processes contribute to the onset of diabetes type 2 and a multitude of serious complications, i.e., heart and blood vessel disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, eye damage possibly leading to blindness, foot, skin and mouth infections, hearing issues, pregnancy complications, and osteoporosis.